Effects of effluent contaminated river water on testicular histology of mice

Mature male mice were used to study the possible effects of effluent contaminated river water on reproduction using testicular histopathology. Freshly collected contaminated river water was supplied to the caged mice daily ad libitum. The mice were serially euthanized and testicles obtained for histology. The testes showed vacuolation and sloughing of seminiferous epithelium; this finding confirms that effluent contaminated river water contains levels of toxins sufficient enough to cause reproductive problems

Detection and enumeration of Coliforms and Escherichia coli in water

Water samples from eighteen different sources in Nairobi were analyzed for coliform and E. coli content using three microbiological techniques, namely: Multiple tube or Most Probable Number (MPN) technique, Defined Substrate Technique (DST) or Colilert technique and Petrifilm(TM) Plate Count Techniques. All the three techniques detected coliforms in water samples contaminated by these organisms. However, the Colilert and Petrifilm Plate techniques were superior to the multiple tube technique in differential detection and enumeration of coliforms and E. coli.

Toxin production and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli river water isolates

To establish the types of E. coli isolates that are found in river water around Nairobi and to assess the potential risk of use of this water to human health. Design: Multiple stratified sampling was carried out. Surface sampling was used in the entire study. Setting: The study was carried out on river waters surrounding Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Forty Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Main outcome measures: Serotyping, toxin gene tests and susceptibility to tetracyclines, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin were analysed.

Ecology of increasing disease, population growth, and environmental degradation.

The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organizations report that the prevalence of human diseases during the past decade is rapidly increasing. Population growth and the pollution of water, air, and soil are contributing to the increasing number of human diseases worldwide. Currently an estimated 40% of world deaths are due to environmental degradation. The ecology of increasing diseases has complex factors of environmental degradation, population growth, and the current malnutrition of about 3.7 billion people in the world

 

severe acute livestock poisoning by borehole water in Marsabit district, Kenya: A case study.

This article report on an outbreak of acute livestock poisoning by bore hole water that occurred at Kargi in Marsabit District, Kenya in 2000. The borehole had been out of use for 3 years and after its was rehabi Iitation, 7,000 died within a day after drinking the water. The most affected were shoats, cattle, camels and dogs with moralities of up to 90%. Donkeys and humans were only mildly affected with no deaths reported. Clinical signs occurred within Ihr after drinking the water.

Assessment of bacteriological and physico-chemical qualities of stand-pipe drinking water stored in Huruma food Kiosks of Nairobi

A total of 104 water samples were randomly taken and analyzed to determine bacteriological and physico-chemical qualities of stand-pipe drinking water stored in Huruma food kiosks of Nairobi, Kenya. Out of these, 92 were from storage containers and 12 from stand-pipes supplying the food kiosks. The mean sample temperature ranged from 19.19°C to 23.0ºC, while the mean pH ranged from 6.75 to 7.0. All samples analyzed in this study had a residual chlorine level of 0.5 mg/l. The mean total bacterial count (TBC) for stand-pipe samples was 46 per ml, while that from stored water was 615 per ml.

Water Supply and Quality Control in Kenya: The Past, Present and Future

Critically examined in this paper are the current sources of water for human consumption in Z Kenya. The various treatment methods and their effectiveness are highlighted. The quality control methods and the statutory regulatory bodies in place are mentioned. Water standards in use are compared with those World Health Organization (WHO). The question whether water supply and quality control should continue to be the domain of the civic/municipal authorities and whether they treat their water properly is discussed.

Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of water quality in Lake Chala catchment area, Kenya

Lake Chala is a transboundary fresh water resource with no surface water inflow or outflow and is located in the southwestern part of Kenya on the Kenya-Tanzania border. The lake catchment area is bound by longitudes 370 41’ E and 370 43’ E and latitudes 30 18’ S and 30 20’ S. The Lake has a surface area of 4.2 km2 and lies within a surface catchment area of about 16.23 km2, which falls within a semiarid region frequently facing severe water scarcity especially during periods of prolonged drought.

Investigation of pollutants, determination of physico-chemical characteristics of the Nairobi river and remediation of some toxic heavy metals using fish bones

A Study was conducted to determine the level of pollution in the Nairobi River. The study covered four sampling sites located along the river, stretching from upstream at Ondiri swamp then moving to Museum Hill Bridge then further down to Race Course and finally downstream at Outer Ring Road Bridge. Sampling was done once a month for a period of six months starting in November 2008 and ending inApril 2009. The sampling carried out covered the wet and dry months. At each sampling site, composite samples of water and sediment were taken.

The Microbiological quality and some physico-chemical aspects of river, tap and recreational water samples from Nairobi City (Kenya)

This study was designed to determine the bacteriological quality and some physico-chemical qualities of river, domestic and swimming pool water in Nairobi area. A total of 52 samples were analyzed. Out of these 20were from swimming pools, 18 were tap and 14 were river sample. The temperature means of swimming pool water was 21.4oC tap water 21.2 oC, and river 20.6 oC while Ph values were 7.8, 6.8 and 6.8 respectively. The fluoride levels were 0.87ppm for swimming pool water with a range of 0.19 to 2.3ppm. Chloride levels ranged from 3ppm for swimming pools to 0 in river water.

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