Scientific paper presented during the FIFTH ANNUAL REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE THEME;`` WATER IS LIFE``. Abstract: The paper illustrates the health status of water in the human body in health and in disease situations and how body water content depends on many variables including age, sex, fat content,leaness of muscles ,the internal environment of body cells and the external envronmental air and temperature.

Water Quality Issues and Solutions in Africa

Water is a critical resource whose quality, quantity, availability, and access are unevenly distributed in Africa. The increasing human population, food production, and industrialization add stress to the available water and contribute to its pollution. Technologies for water purification, conservation, and management are available. Monitoring of water quality is essential and requires development of additional capacity of scientists and instrumental infrastructures.

Assessment of environmental and public health hazards in wastewater used for urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya

Thirty percent of residents in Nairobi practise urban agriculture (UA) with a majority of the farmers using untreated sewage to irrigate crop and fodder. Due to the environmental and health risks associated with wastewater irrigation, a study was carried out in partnership with farmers in Kibera and Maili Saba which are informal settlements along the Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River Basin.


Degradation of agricultural watershed reduces the capacity of agro-ecosystems to produce Ecosystem Services such as improving water quality and flood mitigation. Conservation of degraded watersheds can abate water pollution and regulate stream flows by reducing flash floods and increasing base flow as a result of enhanced infiltration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of agricultural conservation practices on hydrology and water quality in Sasumua watershed, Kenya using SWAT model.

Isolation and characterization of vibrio cholerae phage from The enviromental waters of the lake victoria region of Kenya

The aim of this study was to isolate bacteriophages able to lyse Vibrio cholerae bacteria that cause cholera. Vibriophages have been successfully used to control the pathogen in the environment so as to minimise cholera outbreaks. To isolate bacteriophages lytic against Vibrio cholerae strain used in this study, sixty seven environmental water samples were collected. Forty two samples from the Lake Victoria region of Kenya and twenty five from the Coast region. Sources of the Lake region environmental water samples included ponds, sewage effluent, rivers, wel1s and lakes.

Hygiene practices in urban restaurants and challenges to implementing food safety and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points programmes in Thika town, Kenya

Objectives: To determine the microbial load in food, examination of safety measures and possibility of implementing an Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. Design: The target population for this study consisted of restaurants owners in Thika Municipality (n=30). Simple random samples of restaurants were selected on a systematic sampling method of microbial analysis in cooked, non-cooked, raw food and water sanitation in the selected restaurants. Subjects: Two hundred and ninety eight restaurants within Thika Municipality were selected.

Access to improved santation: implication for sustainable implementation of hygiene practices in secondary schools in Machakos county

The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent to which access to improved sanitation influences the implementation of hygiene practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County with a view to come up with practical and affordable strategies for achievement of Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) on sanitation. The study was guided by the following research questions: To what extent does the (i) type,(ii) maintenance and(iii) adequacy of sanitation facilities influence sustainable implementation of hygiene practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County.

Bacteriological qualities of indoor and out-door drinking water in Kibera sub-location of Nairobi, Kenya

To compare the bacteriological quality of out-house (tank or standpipe) water and in-house drinking water (storage containers) and determine the risk factors influencing it. A cross-sectional study. The study was carried out in Kibera slums located 7 km southwest from the Nairobi City centre. Water samples from twenty outside tanks/standpipes and sixty from in-house water storage containers. Pour plate method was used to enumerate total bacterial counts in water, while the multiple tube technique was used to determine faecal coliform (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) numbers.

The costs of coping with poor water supply in rural Kenya

As the disease burden of poor access to water and sanitation declines around the world, the non-health benefits – mainly the time burden of water collection – will likely grow in importance in sector funding decisions and investment analyses. We measure the coping costs incurred by households in one area of rural Kenya. Sixty percent of the 387 households interviewed were collecting water outside the home, and household members were spending an average of two to three hours doing so per day.

Basic Food Hygiene and Sanitation in the Food Industry

High standards of hygiene and an effective sanitation programme will ensure the manufacture of food products that are free from contamination. The good Manufacturing Practice, as a collective responsibility of everyone in the food handling chain (workers as well as the management personnel), must be taught and followed. However, a properly designed food plant will be easier to sanitise and achieve the required standards of hygiene. It is also more likely to provide tbe consumer with safer food products.


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